Dating gender roles
In North America and southern South America, this is the most common approach among families whose business is agriculture.
In Hofstede’s view, masculinity and femininity differ in the social roles that are associated with the biological fact of the existence of the two sexes: masculinity and femininity refer to the dominant sex role pattern in the vast majority of both traditional and modern societies, males being more assertive and females more nurturing.
There is ongoing debate as to what extent gender roles and their variations are biologically determined, and to what extent they are socially constructed.
Various groups, most notably the feminist movement, have led efforts to change aspects of prevailing gender roles that they believe are oppressive or inaccurate.
Additionally, fulfilling one's prescribed gender roles has been correlated with increased self-esteem, and vice versa.
Some theories – which are collectively termed social construction theories – claim that gender behavior is mostly due to social conventions, although opposing theories disagree, such as theories in evolutionary psychology.
The Parsons model was used to contrast and illustrate extreme positions on gender roles.
Women throughout the world, in many ways, do not enjoy full freedom and protection under the law (see women's rights).The term gender role was first coined by John Money in 1955, during the course of his study of intersex individuals, to describe the manners in which these individuals expressed their status as a male or female in a situation where no clear biological assignment existed.Debate continues as to what extent gender and gender roles are socially constructed (i.e.non-biologically influenced), and to what extent "socially constructed" may be considered synonymous with "arbitrary" or "malleable".Therefore, a concise authoritative definition of gender roles or gender itself is elusive.